Sunday, June 9, 2019

Virtues and activities of the Enlightened Bodhisattvas of the Pure Land – commentary of the sections 28 and 30 of the Larger Sutra

Amida Buddha and His two attendand Bodhisattvas,
Avalokitesvara and Mahasthamaprapta

“The Buddha said to Ananda, ‘All the Bodhisattvas in the land of Amitayus will ultimately attain the stage of becoming a Buddha after one more life. Excepted are those who have made original vows for the sake of sentient beings, resolving to cultivate the merit of realizing their great vows to save all sentient beings.’”[1]

This fragment is clearly related with the 22nd Vow which I already explained in the chapter dedicated to the 48th Vows. Basically, it means, as I explained there, and at chapter 1 of this book (click here to read), that once we attain Buddhahood in the Pure Land, we act as Buddhas who manifest as Bodhisattvas.  The “stage of becoming a Buddha after one more life”, represents the capacity of those who attain Buddhahood in the Pure Land to endlessly manifest themselves in various places in the universe and become active Buddhas there for the sake of sentient beings. When we are born in the Pure Land we automatically gain the capacity to always playing the role of becoming Buddhas and teaching the Dharma like Shakyamuni himself. Shinran Shonin explained this in his Hymns of the Pure Land:

“Those who reach the Pure Land of happiness
Return to this evil world of the five defilements,
Where, like the Buddha Shakyamuni,
They benefit sentient beings without limit.”[2]

This means that once we become Buddhas we continually play various roles for sentient beings all over the samsaric universes, and especially the role of “becoming a Buddha” again and again like Shakyamuni, to spread the Dharma and encourage all beings to follow it. First, we pretend to be unenlightened, then we pretend to practice and attain Buddhahood, and then after the audience is convinced that we are Enlightened, we start teaching, and we repeat this process in various universes, spreading all kinds of Dharma gates and especially the Amida Dharma.
It is important to understand that Buddhas just pretend to disappear into supreme Nirvana (parinirvana)  at the end of their physical body in a certain world, but in fact, they continually manifest for the sake of saving sentient beings. So, those who “ultimately attain the stage of becoming a Buddha after one more life” and those who “have made original vows for the sake of sentient beings, resolving to cultivate the merit of realizing their great vows to save all sentient beings” may appear to be two distinct categories of beings born in the Pure Land, but in fact, they are the same. The original vows are none other than the four Bodhisattva vows, namely, 1) no matter how perfect a Buddha would be, I vow to become like Him, 2) no matter how profound the Dharma (the teaching) would be, I vow to fully understand it all, 3) no matter how numerous the passions would be, I vow to conquer them all and, 4) no matter how numerous the beings would be, I vow to save them all.”
Thus, one who actually becomes a Buddha (first vow) will clearly save all beings (fourth vow), so there can be no distinction between becoming a Buddha and keeping one’s original vows.

A Buddha only puts the show of disappearing into complete Nirvana after some time of teaching in a certain world, as Shakyamuni did in our world, in order to make us appreciate the time He is visible to us and to make us aware of impermanence and the need to not spend our lives in vain, but in reality, He has never disappeared, and always guides beings here and in other universes in the same time. We ourselves will be like Him when we attain Buddhahood in the Pure Land. We’ll constantly go to various places in samsara where we put the show of being born as unenlightened beings, practice, then attain Enlightenment and teach the Dharma, but in reality, we’ll never leave the sphere of Buddhahood and the enlightened place of the Pure Land. This is exactly how any great Bodhisattvas of the Pure Land (who are in fact, Buddhas who manifest as Bodhisattvas) behave, including the most famous of all – Avalokitesvara and Mahasthamaprapta. Shakyamuni explained:

“Ananda, each Sravaka in the Buddha land of Amitayus emits a light for one fathom around his body. The light of a Bodhisattva shines a hundred yojanas. There are two Bodhisattvas who are the most dignified; their majestic light reaches everywhere in the universe of a thousand million worlds.
Ananda asked, ‘What are the names of those two Bodhisattvas?’
The Buddha replied, ‘One is called Avalokitesvara and the other Mahasthamaprapta. They had both performed Bodhisattva practices in this world and, at the end of their lives, were born by transformation in that Buddha land.”[3]

First of all, the term “sravaka” may be mentioned here in relation with residents of the Pure Land who are only at the beginning of their career of saving sentient beings because they have just arrived there. Perhaps this is why their light is not described as so powerful like those who are older than them and whose light shine “a hundred yojanas” or like Avalokitesvara and Mahasthamaprapta who “are the most dignified” and whose “majestic light reaches everywhere in the universe of a thousand million worlds”. Being the oldest Bodhisattvas and saving sentient beings everywhere since immemorial times, they are described in a more exalted way.

The practices those two great Bodhisattvas performed are not just something of the past, and their staying in the Pure Land is not fixed. In the exact same time, they are in the Pure Land as the most exalted Bodhisattvas there, and in various places of the samsaric universes, teaching like Shakyamuni or helping beings in various ways and forms.
“The end of their lives” means only the end of the state prior to attaining perfect Enlightenment (Buddhahood), but not a permanent end of their compassionate activities or their various manifestations outside of the Pure Land for the sake of saving and guiding unenlightened beings. Thus, while having access to ultimate Dharmakaya or Buddha nature, they stay in the Pure Land in their Sambhogakaya form, and also manifest infinite Nirmanakayas (transformation/adaptation) bodies to help all beings.
It is extremely important to know that the way Avalokitesvara and Mahasthamaprapta help all beings is not something only they can do, but also what we’ll do upon birth in the Pure Land and attaining perfect Enlightenment there. As Buddhas who manifests as Bodhisattvas, all who are born in the Pure Land through the Gate of the Primal Vow will have access to the same ultimate Dharmakaya (Buddha nature) of Amida, Avalokitesvara, Mahasthamaprapta and all Enlightened beings, dwell forever in Sambhogakaya form in the Pure Land, and also manifest infinite Nirmanakayas (transformation/adaptation) bodies everywhere in the samsaric universes to help all beings.  They will have the marks of Buddhas - “the sentient beings born there all fully possess the thirty-two physical characteristics of a great being”, as well as “perfect wisdom with which they penetrate deeply into the nature of all dharmas and reach their subtle essence”.
Here “dharmas” means phenomena (not Dharma or teaching with capital “D”), so dwellers of the Pure Land know the true nature behind all phenomena, which is clearly the wisdom only perfect Enlightenment brings.

“Their supernatural powers know no obstruction and their physical senses are sharp and clear”[4]. Their transcendent body in the Pure Land, as well as any manifestation they assume for the sake of sentient beings will not be limited by anything because their mind is enlightened.

They have eyes with which they see everywhere in all the samsaric realms,
“With the physical eye they see clearly, discerning objects without error; the sight of their divine eye reaches everywhere without limit”[5]

They will not fall back in the samsaric states of existence, even when they go there to save others and play the role of becoming a Buddha again and again like Shakyamuni, or when they do various other activities for the sake of sentient beings. Taking the specific form of the beings they want to teach and save, they will, however, not experience their physical or mental limitations but freely exercise supernatural powers and always remember their former lives”.
Also, they will not be affected by attachments or delusions and will never again give rise to ego-centered thoughts and actions, but constantly live in accordance with the Dharma. Shakyamuni said:

“Whether going or coming, proceeding or remaining, their hearts are unattached, their acts are in accordance with their will and are unrestricted, and they have no thought of discrimination. In them, there is no idea of self or others, no idea of competition or dispute. With the heart of great compassion to benefit all living beings and with tenderness and self-control, they bear no enmity or grudge against anyone. Free of mental hindrances, they are pure in mind and without indolence. Unbiased, noble-minded, sincere, and tranquil, their hearts can revere, appreciate, and enjoy the Dharma.
Having extinguished all evil passions, they are free of those tendencies that cause one to fall into evil realms. They have accomplished all the duties of a Bodhisattva and are fully endowed with immeasurable virtues. Having reached deep meditation and gained supernatural powers, transcendent knowledge, and wisdom, they are established in the seven practices leading to Enlightenment and are devoted to the Buddha-Dharma”.[6]

‘They have destroyed envy by not being envious of the superiority of others[7].

Having destroyed the hindrance of the three defilements, they revel in using their supernatural abilities. They possess all the powers of cause, condition, will, vow, skillful means, continuity, good, meditation, intelligence, and attentive hearing; the powers of generosity, precepts, patience, effort, concentration, and wisdom; the powers of right-mindedness, right-contemplation, and supernatural faculties; and the powers to train and guide beings in accordance with the Dharma.[8] They also possess the power of the six pāramitās - giving (dāna), morality (śīla), patience (kṣānti), effort (vīrya), meditation (dhyāna), and wisdom (prajnā) - and the power of right mindfulness, concentration, contemplation, the supernatural faculties, and transcendent knowledge, the power to tame and train living beings in the right way, as well as other powers.”[9]

“They are like the Himalayas, because the brilliance of their virtues is reflected evenly and clearly. They are like the great earth, because they have no discriminative thoughts, such as pure or impure, beautiful or ugly. They are like pure water, because they wash away afflictions and defilements. They are like the king of fire, because they burn the firewood of all evil passions. They are like a great wind, because they travel throughout the worlds without hindrance. They are like the sky, because they have no attachments. They are like lotuses, because nothing in the world can defile them. They are like a great vehicle, because they carry the multitude of beings out of birth and death. They are like a heavy cloud, because they cause the great thunder of the Dharma to roar and awaken the unenlightened. They are like a great rain, because they cause the nectar of the Dharma to fall like rain showers to nourish living beings. They are like the [Encircling] Adamantine Mountains, because demons and non-Buddhists cannot move them. They are like the king of the Brahma Heaven, because they are foremost in the performance of various good deeds. They are like the nyagrodha tree, because they afford shelter to all beings. They are like the uḍumbara flower, because they rarely appear in the world and are difficult to encounter. They are like the gold-winged garuḍa, because they subdue non-Buddhists. They are like a flock of playful birds, because they do not store things. They are like the king of bulls, because they are invincible. They are like the king of elephants, because they conquer  adversaries. They are like the king of lions, because they fear nothing. They are like the vast sky, because their great compassion reaches everywhere without discrimination”.[10]

Not only they do not give rise to attachments in the various samsaric worlds where they go to guide multitudes of unenlightened beings, but also have no attachment to the wonderful manifestations of the Pure Land[11] which means they are in the Pure Land not for their own enjoyment, but for helping others - “in regard to the myriads of things in that land, they have no thought of possession or attachment”[12].

While “the Bodhisattvas of lesser capacities”, that is, bodhisattvas in aspiration or training (not yet Enlightened)” attain two insights”, those who attained Buddhahood in the Pure Land and who have “superior capacities, attain innumerable [merits through the] insight into the non-arising of all dharmas. Those Bodhisattvas will not be subject to rebirth in evil realms before they become Buddhas. Excepted are those who seek birth in the worlds of other directions during the turbulent period of the five defilements, manifesting their forms in the likeness of the beings there, as in this world. They can freely exercise supernatural powers and always remember their former lives.’”[13]

As I explained often “insight into the non-arising of all dharmas (phenomena)” is the spiritual awakening in which one deeply understands that from the perspective of ultimate reality, nothing really arises or perishes. Anything that belongs to samsaric phenomena (dharmas) has no real existence – “they cultivate roots of virtue, revere the path of the Buddha, and know that all dharmas (phenomena) are completely tranquil and nonexistent”. The phenomena (dharmas) are ultimately void or empty of inherent existence because they come into being according to various causes and conditions, and are not existing independently by themselves. In contrast to this, the Buddha nature which does not depend on causes and conditions, is actually the only existent reality and is not void or empty of itself, but only empty of samsaric phenomena, empty of delusion, empty of suffering, empty of ignorance[14].  

“Those Bodhisattvas will not be subject to rebirth in evil realms before they become Buddhas”  -  once born in the Pure Land they will never retrogress into the lower realms, but immediately realize Buddhahood or perfect Enlightenment and attain “the insight into the non-arising of all dharmas (phenomena)”, that is, they know ultimate reality or Buddha-nature, as explained above.

“Excepted are those who seek birth in the worlds of other directions during the turbulent period of the five defilements, manifesting their forms in the likeness of the beings there, as in this world. They can freely exercise supernatural powers and always remember their former lives”[15] – those who attained Buddhahood or perfect Enlightenment in the Pure Land will go to various samsaric planes of existence, manifesting the form of beings living there and guide them in the Dharma. They will have no obstruction as they are already Enlightened, and are beyond suffering. Being perfectly enlightened, they of course, remember all their previous lives from before they attained Buddhahood, as well as the lives of all beings, they want to guide.
This being the case, although such Enlightened Bodhisattvas (Buddhas who manifest as Bodhisattvas) understand the dharmas (phenomena) to be empty of inherent existence and the product of causes and conditions, this does not make them inactive but encourage them to work even harder for the benefit of ignorant unenlightened beings who are caught in the samsaric dream and believe to be true that which is empty and false,

“With the Buddha eye they completely realize the nature of dharmas (phenomena).
Although they observe with the eye of equality that the three worlds are empty and nonexistent, they strive to learn the Buddha-Dharma (they naturally/automatically learn and know all Dharma methods) and acquire varied eloquence to rid living beings of affliction caused by the evil passions. Since all dharmas have arisen from suchness, the bodhisattvas see them as they really are and know skillful means of speech that will develop good habits and destroy bad ones in living beings. “[16]

The meaning of the last sentence is that both unenlightened phenomena or enlightened phenomena have the same base as the condition –  ultimate reality (suchness/Dharmakaya), but different causes,  1) delusion and attachments for unenlightened phenomena and 2) enlightenment, infinite wisdom and infinite compassion for enlightened phenomena.
Being masters of phenomena (dharmas) these Enlightened Bodhisattvas know exactly what to say and do to guide beings in the various Dharma gates which they naturally/automatically learn and know.

“With the Dharma eye they observe and know thoroughly the teachings of the Way; with the wisdom eye they see truth and attain the other shore”[17] - they attained Buddhahood/the other shore of Nirvana.

They are not subject to karma and have no blind passions,
“Their samsaric bodies and evil passions have been extinguished together with their remaining karmic tendencies”.[18]

Having no attachments, no ignorance and no blind passions, they automatically have no worldly or spiritual fear. This is because the Dharma liberated them,

“When they hear the profound Dharma their minds are free of doubt and fear”.[19]

They have infinite wisdom and infinite compassion which only Buddhas have, knowing all Dharma methods and being active in the liberation of all sentient beings,

“They are always able to cultivate great compassion, which is deep and subtle, embracing everything like the sky and bearing all like the earth. Having reached the end of the single path they have gone to the other shore. Since they have cut the net of doubt, wisdom arises in their minds. Within the Buddha-Dharma there is nothing that they do not comprehend. Their wisdom is like the ocean, and their samadhi is like the king of mountains. The light of their wisdom, being brilliant and pure, outshines the sun and moon. They are in complete possession of the pure, undefiled Dharma.”.[20]

When they use language, whatever words they say, their motivation is only to guide beings to the Dharma,

“They dislike secular talk, enjoying only right discourse on the Dharma.”[21]

Knowing the exact capacities of beings and what these can or cannot understand, they are the best teachers and have the best teaching methods,

“The Buddha said to Ananda, ‘The Bodhisattvas born in that Buddha land expound the Right Dharma whenever appropriate and, because they are in accord with the wisdom of Enlightenment, their expositions are infallible and free of error.’” [22]

 “With unhindered wisdom they expound the Dharma to others”[23].
“With single heartedness they seek the Dharma tirelessly. Always desiring to expound the doctrine, they never grow weary. Striking Dharma drums and hoisting Dharma banners, they cause the sun of wisdom to shine forth and dissipate the darkness of ignorance. They perform the six acts of accord and respect, and always provide others with the gift of the Dharma. Strong willed and diligent, their determination never falters. Thus they become lamps for the world and fields of supreme merit; they always become teachers and harbor no thought of discrimination, aversion, or attachment. They seek only the right path, finding neither joy nor sorrow in other matters. They extract thorns of passion and give peace of mind to multitudes of beings. Because of their merit and wisdom, there is no one who does not revere them”.[24]

I repeat, as this is extremely important. The above qualities described and attributed to the Enlightened Bodhisattvas of the Pure Land will be ours when we’ll be born there after death and attain perfect Enlightenment, thus starting our endless career of active Buddhas, or Buddhas who manifest as Bodhisattvas for the sake of sentient beings. As Shakyamuni said, the qualities described by Him in the Larger Sutra are only a small part of what we’ll be like when we go to the Pure Land,

“Ananda, Bodhisattvas of that land have innumerable virtues such as these, of which I have given you only an outline. If I were to expound them in full detail, a thousand million kalpas would not be long enough to do so.”[25]

All those born in the Pure Land through the Gate of the Primal Vow, attained this birth and perfect Enlightenment through the Power of Amida. Also, all the supernatural capacities they receive as Enlightened Bodhisattvas (Buddhas who manifest as Bodhisattvas) are also ultimately, due to the Power of Amida. This includes travelling to other worlds and paying homage to various Buddhas who turn the Wheel of Dharma there,

“By the Buddha’s power, Bodhisattvas of that land go to innumerable worlds of the ten directions, in as short a time as it takes to eat a meal, in order to pay homage and make offerings to the Buddhas and World-honored Ones. If those Bodhisattvas so wish, countless and innumerable offerings, such as flowers, incense, music, silken canopies, and banners, spontaneously appear before them as soon as they are imagined. They are rare and marvelous, unlike anything in this world. They are, accordingly, offered to the assemblies of Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, and Sravakas. The flowers remain in the sky and gather into canopies. Their brilliance is dazzling and their fragrance pervades everywhere. The flower canopies range in size from those of four hundred li in circumference up to those large enough to cover the universe of a thousand million worlds. As new flower canopies appear old ones disappear. These Bodhisattvas all rejoice together, and, while poised in midair, play heavenly music and praise the virtues of the Buddhas with hymns accompanied by wonderful sounds. They listen to the Dharma and attain immeasurable joy. After thus worshiping the Buddhas, they quickly return home to the Pure Land before their meal.”[26]

Why do we go to innumerable worlds to make offerings to the Buddhas living there, after we ourselves attained Buddhahood? Because in different ways and using various skillful means, all Buddhas protected us, and guided us towards Amida. As Shinran said,

“Sakyamuni and all the other Buddhas
Are truly our compassionate father and mother.
With various compassionate means they lead us to awaken
Supreme shinjin that is true and real."[27]

„Shinjin (faith) is bestowed through the compassionate means of Sakyamuni, Amida, and all the Buddhas in the ten quarters”[28]

 „The true and fundamental intent for which all the Buddhas, past, present, and future, appear in this world, is solely to teach the inconceivable Vow of Amida”[29]

Thus, upon attaining Enlightenment in the Pure Land we’ll naturally wish to say “thank you” to each one of them in particular.

to be continued 



[1] The Three Pure Land Sutras - A Study and Translation from Chinese by Hisao Inagaki in collaboration with Harold Stewart, Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai and Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, Kyoto, 2003, p.41
[2] Shinran Shonin, Hymns of the Pure Land, The Collected Works of Shinran, Shin Buddhism Translation Series, Jodo Shinshu Hongwanji-ha, Kyoto, 1997, p.214 
[3] The Three Pure Land Sutras - A Study and Translation from Chinese by Hisao Inagaki in collaboration with Harold Stewart, Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai and Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, Kyoto, 2003, p.41
[4] The Three Pure Land Sutras - A Study and Translation from Chinese by Hisao Inagaki in collaboration with Harold Stewart, Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai and Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, Kyoto, 2003, p.42
[5] The Three Pure Land Sutras - A Study and Translation from Chinese by Hisao Inagaki in collaboration with Harold Stewart, Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai and Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, Kyoto, 2003, p.44
[6] The Three Pure Land Sutras - A Study and Translation from Chinese by Hisao Inagaki in collaboration with Harold Stewart, Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai and Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, Kyoto, 2003, p.43
[7] The Three Pure Land Sutras - A Study and Translation from Chinese by Hisao Inagaki in collaboration with Harold Stewart, Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai and Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, Kyoto, 2003, p.45
[8] This passage belongs to the translation done by Hongwanji International Center, Shin Buddhism Translation Series, volume II of The Three Pure Land Sutras, Jodo Shinshu Hongwanji-ha, Kyoto, 2009, p. 66
[9] The Three Pure Land Sutras - A Study and Translation from Chinese by Hisao Inagaki in collaboration with Harold Stewart, Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai and Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, Kyoto, 2003, p.46
[10] The Three Pure Land Sutras - A Study and Translation from Chinese by Hisao Inagaki in collaboration with Harold Stewart, Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai and Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, Kyoto, 2003, p.44-45
[11] As explained, the wonderful manifestations of the Pure Land are enlightened manifestations themselves and unlike samsaric manifestations, they do not lead to attachment),
[12] The Three Pure Land Sutras - A Study and Translation from Chinese by Hisao Inagaki in collaboration with Harold Stewart, Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai and Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, Kyoto, 2003, p.43
[13] The Three Pure Land Sutras - A Study and Translation from Chinese by Hisao Inagaki in collaboration with Harold Stewart, Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai and Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, Kyoto, 2003, p.42
[14] Such a teaching is present in many Mahayana sutras like Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra, Tathagatagarbha Sutra, Sutra of the Great Dharma Drum, Srimala’s Lion Roar Sutra, Angulimalya Sutra, etc. 
[15] The Three Pure Land Sutras - A Study and Translation from Chinese by Hisao Inagaki in collaboration with Harold Stewart, Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai and Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, Kyoto, 2003, p.42
[16] The Three Pure Land Sutras - A Study and Translation from Chinese by Hisao Inagaki in collaboration with Harold Stewart, Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai and Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, Kyoto, 2003, p.44
[17] The Three Pure Land Sutras - A Study and Translation from Chinese by Hisao Inagaki in collaboration with Harold Stewart, Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai and Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, Kyoto, 2003, p.43
[18] The Three Pure Land Sutras - A Study and Translation from Chinese by Hisao Inagaki in collaboration with Harold Stewart, Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai and Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, Kyoto, 2003, p.44
[19] The Three Pure Land Sutras - A Study and Translation from Chinese by Hisao Inagaki in collaboration with Harold Stewart, Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai and Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, Kyoto, 2003, p.44
[20] The Three Pure Land Sutras - A Study and Translation from Chinese by Hisao Inagaki in collaboration with Harold Stewart, Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai and Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, Kyoto, 2003, p.44
[21] The Three Pure Land Sutras - A Study and Translation from Chinese by Hisao Inagaki in collaboration with Harold Stewart, Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai and Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, Kyoto, 2003, p.44
[22] The Three Pure Land Sutras - A Study and Translation from Chinese by Hisao Inagaki in collaboration with Harold Stewart, Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai and Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, Kyoto, 2003, p.44
[23] The Three Pure Land Sutras - A Study and Translation from Chinese by Hisao Inagaki in collaboration with Harold Stewart, Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai and Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, Kyoto, 2003, p.44
[24] The Three Pure Land Sutras - A Study and Translation from Chinese by Hisao Inagaki in collaboration with Harold Stewart, Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai and Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, Kyoto, 2003, p.45-46
[25] The Three Pure Land Sutras - A Study and Translation from Chinese by Hisao Inagaki in collaboration with Harold Stewart, Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai and Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, Kyoto, 2003, p.46
[26] The Three Pure Land Sutras - A Study and Translation from Chinese by Hisao Inagaki in collaboration with Harold Stewart, Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai and Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, Kyoto, 2003, p.46
[27] Shinran Shonin, Hymn of the Two Gateways of Entrance and Emergence, The Collected Works of Shinran, Shin Buddhism Translation Series, Jodo Shinshu Hongwanji-ha, Kyoto, 1997, p.629
[28] Shinran Shonin, Lamp for the Latter-Ages, letter 2, The Collected Works of Shinran, Shin Buddhism Translation Series, Jodo Shinshu Hongwanji-ha, Kyoto, 1997, p.527
[29]  Shinran Shonin, Passages on the Pure Land Way, The Collected Works of Shinran, Shin Buddhism Translation Series, Jodo Shinshu Hongwanji-ha, Kyoto, 1997, p.260


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